Ludmila Pavlovskaya’s father Vladimir Pavlovskiy

My father Vladimir Pavlovskiy in 1936 in Kharkov. Photo made for the diploma, issued by the Ukrainian Institute of State Trade in Kharkov. My father got the diploma of the commodity expert and economist in manuafctured goods. My father Vladimir Pavlovskiy, born on 6 January 1899. He was named Shloime-Wolf at birth. He studied at cheder and then finished 4 years at primary school. Unfortunately, my father didn't have an opportunity to continue his studies. He had to support his family. At 12 my father got a job of a "boy" (a word for an apprentice) in a store. He became a shop assistant and worked in this store textile for 10 years. My father was very enthusiastic about the revolution of 1917. The residential boundaries and the percent rate of admission of Jews to the higher educational institutions were cancelled. Education was free of charge and anybody could get it. This all gave him hope for a better life. The revolution also called to give up faith in God. Religion was called "opium for the people". My father became an atheist and quit observing Jewish traditions. Later my father worked as an assistant accountant, then as secretary at the provincial department of education in Kiev and secretary of the pedagogical council of the cooperative professional school. In 1930 he entered the working rabfak at the Institute of State Trade and in a year upon finishing this working people faculty and entered the cooperative trade institute. This institute was located in Kiev, but later it was transferred to Kharkov (Kharkov was the capital of the Ukrainian SSR) and renamed into the Institute of Soviet Trade. My father spent two years in Kharkov studying and working. He graduated from the institute in Kharkov in 1936 with the diploma of a commodity expert for manufactured goods. He was already married by this time.