Ferenc Deutsch's family in Putnok

My family in Putnok.

In the back row from left to right are: Helen, my mother`s sister-in-law, with her son Ferike; Juliska, my sister; myself; Jolan, my eldest sister; and her husband Zoli Grunwald.

In the front row from left to right are: my brother Pista; my father with Rozsi, my mother`s brother Bela`s daughter; and Klari, my sister.

I was six when we moved to Putnok. There were roughly 380 Jewish families there. We Jews lived in one area, but there was a strong hierarchy between us.

Because of my poverty I could never have married in Putnok. From this point of view, there was no great cohesion there. The poor were looked down on.

Putnok was a very observant town, with a very orthodox Jewish community. It had a yeshiva, they educated bochers in Putnok.

There was a very observant rabbi there. He was bearded and had many children. He wore a caftan, and he had tzitzith on it.