It is my order certificate I got in 1946. I had several combat awards: two medals 'For combat merits', order of 'Red Star', medals 'For liberation of Warsaw', 'For capture of Berlin'.
I finished the war in the rank of captain. There was no anti-Semitism in our circles in the army. There were tatars in my unit and there was Brodski, a Jew. However, there were demonstrations of anti-Semitism among high-level officers that were responsible for awards. I faced it when I was to be awarded a medal 'For combat merits'. Awards were usually handed during intervals when the army units were remanning. The ones that were on the lists for awards were notified in advance. I got a notification and even prepared a speech, but it never got to it. My subordinate received an award and I don't know for what reason. We were not supposed to ask questions. When I was to be awarded for the second time I was told that it was going to be a 'Red Star' order, but instead I was awarded a 'For combat merits' medal. I received my 'Red Star' when we were near Kiev. My nationality played its negative role in my promotion in the army and after the war.