Sara Lea Grunberg with her son Mozes Grunberg

Sara Lea Grunberg with her son Mozes Grunberg
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  • Photo taken in:
    Tarnow
    Year when photo was taken:
    1935
    Country name at time of photo:
    Poland
    Country name today:
    Poland
On this photo you can see my mother, Sara Lea Grunberg (nee Muschel) and my younger brother Mozes Grunberg. It was taken in July 1935, when Mozes was six and a half years old. My mom was a tall blonde. She was really the same height as Dad. And she didn't use to wear a wig, but right after the wedding she wore a kind of a braid fastened to short hair so that everyone would be happy. So that you could say she had a wig, but so that it wasn't a wig. She had pretty blond hair, Dad was dark-haired, Mom was a blonde, so she wore that wig for two, three years, but I don't remember that, I just heard stories. From the time I remember Mom, she had her own hair, which was a big concession in those circles, but she always wore something on her head, or whenever she was outside, she wore a hat or a scarf. I don't think she wore it at home, because I remember her hair, always cut short and somehow tucked, so that there was no suspicion whether it was her own hair or not, and so that nobody made a fuss about it. Mom was extremely clean and she took great care of the house, and all the time we had to sweep and polish those floors, and when it comes to things like that, she could do it on Saturdays, but of course in such a way that Dad wouldn't find out. Because when it comes to this, Sabbath was more important. So she was a bit more lay. Mom spoke Polish every day and was more fluent in it than Dad. Dad would make some grammatical mistakes sometimes, but Mom never. She was from slightly different circles and she read, maybe not very serious literature, but she read from time to time, she had some books in Polish. She borrowed them from someone; there was an aunt who used to read, so they exchanged books or something. We would bring Polish books from a library. Both my sister and I belonged to a library. I belonged to a library called TSL, I think that stood for Towarzystwo Szkol Ludowych [Rural Schools Association]. I used to borrow books there, I know I had to fight for it, because I had to pay a fee there - I think 1 zloty a month - and we didn't really have money. So Mom sometimes read those books, and if Dad knew we had something new, some book, he always had a look at it, because he was curious what we were reading. But he didn't read much himself. And Mom could read Jewish Yiddish, and sometimes she also read a book in Yiddish. I was born on 24th November 1924 in Tarnow. When it comes to my siblings, I had a brother - Mojzesz - four years younger than me, and a sister - Tauba - older than me, also by four years.

Interview details

Interviewee: Gizela Fudem
Interviewer:
Jakub Rajchman
Month of interview:
March
Year of interview:
2005
Wroclaw, Poland

KEY PERSON

Sara Lea Grunberg
Year of birth:
1902
City of birth:
Tarnow
Country name at time of birth:
Austria
Year of death:
1942
City of death:
Belzec
Country of death:
Poland
Died where:
Belzec
Occupation
before WW II:
Housewife
Family names
  • Previous family name: 
    Muschel
    Reason for changing: 
    Marriage
    Decade of changing: 
    1910

Other Person

Mozes Grunberg
Year of birth:
1928
City of birth:
Tarnow
Country name at time of birth:
Poland
Year of death:
1942
Country of death:
Poland

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