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Ada Dal

My grandfather was a very well read and educated man. He followed all political events in the country. He was critical about what was going on during the period of Stalin's repression [the so-called Great Terror] [5]. He was a very intelligent and a very reserved man. He never raised his voice. My grandmother Sabina was also a very intelligent and educated woman. She was also very kind.
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Emilia Ratz

Nach dem Sechstagekrieg [23] 1967 in Israel, begann sich in Polen eine antisemitische Atmosphäre breit zu machen. Es wurde noch nichts offen ausgesprochen, aber es war zu spüren. Einige Wenige trauten sich sogar auf Versammlungen herumzuschreien, aber offen sagen, dass die Juden aus Polen verschwinden sollen, traute sich niemand.

Mein Chef rief mich eines Tages zu sich, er hatte mich immer sehr geschätzt und sagte zu mir, ich könne nicht mehr auf meiner Stelle arbeiten, weil mein Mann eine Schwester in Israel habe, und sie deswegen kein Vertrauen mir gegenüber mehr haben könnten. Ich bekäme aber eine gleichwertige Stelle angeboten. Ich bekam keine Stelle und ging dann zum oberen Chef, weil ich glaubte, der sei ein intelligenter Mann und politisch am rechten Ort. Aber er war ein wahnsinniger Angsthase. Ich bekam dann einen Posten in einer Bank als technischer Berater. Es gab - ich kann das aber nicht belegen, weil ich auch dort zwar viel weniger verdiente als in meiner vorherigen Arbeitsstelle, aber für dortige Verhältnisse immer noch gut - wahrscheinlich eine Instruktion, dass die aus ihren Ämtern geworfenen Juden natürlich auch finanziell spüren sollten, dass sie in Polen nicht erwünscht waren. Mein Mann hatte seine Arbeitsstelle behalten, aber schon 1956, während der ersten antisemitischen Welle in Polen, wollte mein Mann Polen verlassen. Viele Leute gingen damals, aber dann wurde es etwas lockerer. Nun mussten wir im Alter von 50 Jahren einsehen, dass wir uns geirrt hatten.
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Asia Matveyuk

We never discussed any subjects related to Israel or the 6-day war [25], war of the Judgment Day [26], or this whole propaganda of the USSR against Israel. I think, my husband understood that I could not be impartial in these issues and tried to avoid the subjects that were painful for me as a Jew.  Of course, in my heart I was always on the side of the Jewish state.
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Gitli Alhalel

My family and I followed emotionally the development of Israel, the positive and negative changes. We are worried about the constant war there. I remember well how the UN decided to decree the foundation of the Jewish State in 1948. At that time all Arab states denounced that, saying that such a country could not exist. The following precedent was created: the Palestine state was seized by Egypt and Jordan. Naturally, most of the Arabs were banished from Israel, in fact their lands were no longer theirs (in 1948 when the Israeli state was founded the Jews all over the world were allowed to buy land in Palestine). So, the kibbutzim appeared, which are the most liberal form of communism. They are cooperative form of farming, in which everyone works as hard as the others and owns as much as the others. The Jews in Bulgaria worried a lot about the events in Israel after 1950. I remember that in the 1950s Zionism was declared a form of fascism. Then people in Bulgaria discussed secretly whether citizens of Jewish origin could be appointed to leadership positions in the communist party. Because at the time of the Warsaw Pact, for example, Bulgaria was forced to renounce diplomatic relations with Israel. The other countries from the former Soviet bloc did the same. [35] Yet, despite the weak relations and the distance, we were able to follow the events in Israel and discussed them among each other.
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Boris Shteinas

In 1960s during the six-day [18], Yom Kippur wars [19] I always supported Jewish state. There were cases when I was called in the municipal party committee and asked to hold a speech with defamation of Israel, I also refused doing that . I had not stigmatized myself.
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