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baby pisetskaya

During the Great Patriotic War they were all evacuated to Tashkent [today Uzbekistan]. Uncle Yakov was released from military service since the thumb of his right hand was deformed.
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Mico Alvo

In 1932 Joseph left for Palestine. For one, because he wanted to avoid that his son had to do his military service, but also because his son was a Zionist. In fact, he used to say that he will go there and go to the school for agricultural studies. He didn't take agricultural studies there and went to a bank instead. In Palestine Joseph was working for a bank. I think he was a partner at the Recanati Bank.

He was still interested in the business in Thessaloniki without being present or working. My father promised him that his part of the business wouldn't be touched by anybody else. Each one owned half of the company. He would take part of the earnings, as usual. Until the Germans came, they would share everything. He would come and visit us in Thessaloniki at least once a year, but Father never went to visit him. Daniel went a couple of times.

Joseph settled in Tel Aviv. They rented a very beautiful house in a central avenue. They felt very lonely there. They didn't have the circle of people they had here. They didn't have their friends around or anyone from the family. Joseph wanted to drag with him someone from the family because he felt very lonely there. But he didn't succeed.

Daniel went and didn't like it at all, especially the water. 'What kind of water is that?', he was saying, 'This smells like a rotten egg. How do you drink this water?' In fact my father insisted very much on their coming back. 'What are you doing down there?', he used to tell them, 'come back and we will all live together.' Luckily they didn't come back and were saved by pure luck. Joseph died after the war, in 1965.

Marcel was a Zionist. He used to tell me sometimes, 'We will do this, we will do that.' That a state would be created, and the state of Palestine would become a Jewish state. He was a supporter of Herzl [10]. We used to hang out with Marcel because he thought of us as his younger cousins.
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henryk prajs

He had a finger missing. He had cut it off himself so that they wouldn't draft him to the tsarist army.
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anna schwartzman

My brother Ruvim, who was drafted into the army in Tashkent, never went to the front. He told the military committee that he was a builder and was sent to rebuild the city of Gorky. He worked for a military factory until the end of the war. After the war he settled in Chernovtsy and continued working in construction.
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leon solowiejczyk

But those who did not want to go to the army and who were starving, they were peaceful. And nobody wanted to go to the army. Jews didn't want to either. Before the war, it was like this, they'd choose whom they wanted in the army. You had to be tall enough, weigh enough, you had to be healthy. The boys had to be healthy and fit. And those who didn't want to go, would starve themselves on purpose, so they would weigh less.
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Leon Glazer

My brother was with us even though he had been called up into the army as a recruit. If he'd done his school-leaving certificate he would have been called up as an officer cadet. But he never went into the army. Mobilization was announced [on 30th August 1939 universal mobilization was announced and then revoked, on 31st August it was announced again] and everyone who had recruitment papers was under obligation to report to their unit. I don't remember what unit he was supposed to report to, but everyone was looking for their units and couldn't find them, because they weren't organized, or they were already on their way somewhere else.
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Max Tauber

Mein Urgroßvater väterlicherseits Leopold, jüdisch Elieser, Müller kam ursprünglich aus Polen. Er ist mit seiner Frau, ihren Namen weiß ich nicht, noch im 19. Jahrhundert nach Österreich gekommen. Polen war damals unter russischer Verwaltung, und in Russland war Militärpflicht ab dem 21. Lebensjahr, da hat es kein Pardon gegeben, da hat man einrücken müssen. Der Militärdienst hat sieben Jahre gedauert. Mein Urgroßvater muss damals zwanzig Jahre alt gewesen sein, und wäre bald militärpflichtig geworden. Da ist er praktisch geflüchtet mit seiner Frau, die damals 18 Jahre alt war.

Meine Großmutter Anna Müller wurde auf dieser Flucht zwischen 1860 und 1870 in Weikendorf, im Marchfeld, dem östlichsten Teil von Niederösterreich, der direkt an die Slowakei grenzt und in der Nähe von Gänserndorf liegt, geboren. Dort haben sie Unterkunft bei einem Bauern gefunden, der ihnen ein Kammerl zur Verfügung stellte.
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Alice Granierer

Im 1948er-Jahr, als der Staat Israel ausgerufen war, musste ich mich zum Militär melden. Ich habe gesagt, sie sollen mich nur als Reserve nehmen, denn ich arbeite bei Kolbo/Schwarz, und ich muss meinen Geschwistern und meinen Eltern helfen.
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Bruno Bittmann

Unter Stalin durfte man nichts sagen. Meine Mutter hatte immer Angst, weil ich so ein Revoluzzer war. Bevor ich die Arbeit als Elektriker im Theater bekam, meldete ich mich bei der Miliz. Man konnte schießen, man bekam ein Gewehr - das gefiel mir. Eines Tages musste ich jemanden, der verhaftet wurde, abholen.

Ich kannte ihn und habe beschlossen, das nicht zu tun. Ich habe zu meiner Mutter gesagt, dass ich nicht mehr bei der Miliz arbeiten will. Sie bekam einen furchtbaren Schreck: 'Bist du verrückt, du kommst da nicht mehr heraus, man wird dich verhaften!' Das war mir aber egal, ich wollte das nicht machen.

Ich ging zu meinem Vorgesetzten und habe ihm gesagt, dass ich das nicht mache. Er hat schrecklich getobt und mir gedroht, aber ich habe gesagt: 'Von mir aus sperr mich ein, ich verhafte niemanden,' habe meinen Ausweis und meine Pistole auf den Tisch gelegt und bin gegangen. Nichts ist passiert!
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Vladimir Baum

Meine Tochter Sanja hat Theaterwissenschaften und Regie studiert. Ich flog von Stockholm, von der ersten Umweltkonferenz der UNO, über Jugoslawien nach New York zurück, um die Diplomarbeit meiner Tochter im größten Theater in Belgrad zu sehen. Das war 'Doktor Faustus' von Christopher Marlowe, einem Vorgänger von Shakespeare. Der 'Doktor Faustus' ist ein altes Spiel aus dem 16. Jahrhundert, und in dem Stück gibt es auch einen Mephisto.

Sie hatte den Mephisto - das war eine Neuerung - mit einer Frau besetzt. Sie war eine Zeit lang Regisseurin in kleinen Theatern in der Provinz. Später war sie beim Rundfunk in Belgrad. 1992, nach dem Ausbruch des Balkankrieges, emigrierte sie mit ihrer Mutter, ihrer 6jährigen Tochter Julia, einer Cousine und zwei Cousins nach Israel. Sie war damals 44 Jahre alt. Die zwei Cousins waren im Militäralter, und um sie vor dem Militärdienst in Jugoslawien zu bewahren, emigrierten sie nach Israel.
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Jozef Hen

I kept thinking about reaching Anders's army, beyond Stalingrad. In April 1942, in Saratov, I came upon some commanders, who were packing up to go south. Lieutenant Borkowski, a very intelligent man, was there. He gave me and my friend assignments to the army under false names which we assumed.

It was an escape from the labor battalion. If they had caught us, that would have been the end for us. They didn't want to take us with the official transport, but told us to get there on our own. So my friend and I found ourselves in Yangiyul [Uzbekistan], some 100 km from Tashkent, where Szyszko Bogsza's headquarters were located.
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Anna Dremlug

After the Soviet power was established, my grandfather was among the first peasants to join the kolkhoz [6]. He didn’t go to the army.
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Julian Gringras

I suspect that Artur, who neared the age of conscription slightly later [than Simon], also tried to dodge his draft. He used to drink black coffee like that, I remember. In any case they didn’t call him up. Artur graduated from gymnasium; he didn’t matriculate.
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Simon went to Palestine, in 1921 or 1922, I think. It was a well-known fact that an awful lot of lads from Jewish families tried to dodge their draft, and they used various techniques.

I remember that there was even the technique of starving yourself and drinking black coffee. Simon was probably a Zionist, or maybe he was draft-dodging. Later on he was in some kibbutz, he contracted malaria, and then he turned up in France.
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