It’s me, Chana, today Anna, with my father Jankiel Szwarc in Kazimierz.
My father, as I said, was a watchmaker. At first he went from village to village to earn money, then he set up a small shop where he worked. It was at Pijarska Street in Lublin.
As we always barely made the ends meet, if we bought something, it was on credit.
Those bills of exchange had to be eventually repaid, and there was always some hectic searching for the money.
Date of interview: November 2005
Interviewer: Magda Cobel-Tokarska
Mrs. Mass is a wonderful old lady, charming, cheerful and witty. She lives alone in Warsaw.
Following her husband’s death, she has developed an interest in alternative medicine, parapsychology and astrology.
She keeps learning new things. I was entranced by her fascinating stories, interwoven with numerous digressions.
This is a photo of me from the 2000s. I don’t know who took this picture. It is part of my private archive.
I was a Zionist ever since I turned seven years old. It was humiliating for me that my nation didn't have its own state. There was no talk of anti-Semitism, but I thought a Jewish state should be set up.
I made Zionist speeches when I was seven years old. I would stand on a table in our villa in Michalin and shout: 'Precz z Anglia' ('Down with England'), because England was an opponent then and a lot depended on England.
I don’t know who took this picture and when exactly. As most of our family shots, this one was probably saved thanks to Chawa, my father’s sister, who had left for Argentina before World War II. This picture is a portrait of my father, Rubin Cukier.
Father was born around 1891 in Radzyn. In 1914 he was conscripted into the tsarist army, but he was bought out.
In 1906, as a 15-year-old, after the revolution, he ran away to Warsaw, where he began working in some water-sewage corporation.
This picture was taken in 1927 in our villa, called Kronowka.
I don’t know who took this photo. As most of our family shots, this one was probably saved thanks to Chawa, my father’s sister, who had left to Argentina.
In the second row from the left we can see my mother, Chawa Cukier, my father, Rubin Cukier, and a woman, who is probably not a member of our family.
In the first row from the left we can see my sister Stella Boren (nee Cukier), me, my brother Hipek Cukier and my sister Mirka Toronczyk (nee Cukier).
I don’t know who took this picture and when exactly.
As most of our family shots, this one was probably saved thanks to Chawa, my father’s sister, who had left for Argentina before World War II. In this picture we can see my parents, Rubin, and Ewa Cukier.
My mother's name was Chawa, or Ewa, maiden name Gampel. She was born in 1894 in Warsaw. She was the second child in that family. She graduated from the 6th grade of public school.